Author Archives: sidefive

Understanding Radiation: General Principles of Nuclear Explosions

An explosion, in general, results from the very rapid release of a large amount of energy within a limited space. This is true for a conventional “high explosive,” such as TNT, as well as for a nuclear (or atomic) explosion,1 although the energy is produced in quite different ways. The sudden liberation of energy causes a considerable increase of temperature ... Read More »

Understanding Radiation: Fallout

Worldwide Fallout After an air burst the fission products, un-fissioned nuclear material, and weapon residues which have been vaporized by the heat of the fireball will condense into a fine suspension of very small particles 0.01 to 20 micrometers in diameter. These particles may be quickly drawn up into the stratosphere, particularly so if the explosive yield exceeds 10 Kt. ... Read More »

Understanding Radiation: Atomic Structure and Isotopes

All substances are made up from one or more of about 90 different kinds of simple materials known as “elements.” Among the common elements are the gases hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; the solid nonmetals carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus; and various metals, such as iron, copper, and zinc. A less familiar element, which has attained prominence in recent years because of ... Read More »

Radioactive Fallout Will be The Killer

Like the more than 160 million Americans who live within the danger zones, your greatest concern following a nuclear attack comes from radioactive fallout. That’s the main reason you will need a well-constructed, underground bomb shelter. It’s true that taking shelter under the coffee table or in the basement will increase your chances for short-term survival, but these structures will ... Read More »

Bomb Shelter Writing Supplies

Are writing supplies available, including pens or pencils and printed forms or paper, for keeping records of radiation exposure? The radiation exposure of each bomb shelter occupant should be recorded every day and for any special trip that increases the person’s exposure. A sample radiation exposure record is shown in the Appendix at the end of this book. If enough ... Read More »

Watching for Fallout to Arrive Near the Bomb Shelter

People may find that a nuclear attack is about to happen or is on its way by announcements on the radio or television, by sirens or other warning devices, or by word of mount. When a nuclear weapon explodes anywhere within several hundred miles, there will be many signs to indicate it. By that time, people should be on the ... Read More »

Use of the Penalty Table as a Guide for Bomb Shelter Operations

The Penalty Table was developed to provide a simple guide when decisions must be made that will involve some risk. The choice of the numbers was based on judgment derived from extensive clinical radiotherapy experience, pathological studies of radiation-accident victims, and laboratory experience with numerous large and small animals. There is no directly applicable disaster or laboratory experience involving humans ... Read More »

Understanding Radiation

What is radiation, you ask? Radiation in physics is the process of emitting energy in the form of waves or particles. Various types of radiation may be distinguished, depending on the properties of the emitted energy/matter, the type of the emission source, properties and purposes of the emission, etc. When used by the general public, the word “radiation” commonly refers ... Read More »