What is a nuclear explosion?
A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. A nuclear device can range from a weapon carried by an intercontinental missile to a small portable nuclear device. All nuclear devices cause deadly effects when exploded, including blinding light, intense heat (thermal radiation), initial nuclear radiation, blast, fires started by the heat pulse, and secondary fires caused by the destruction.
Will a nuclear explosion mean the end of the world is here?
Quite the contrary. Clearly, anyone inside an area equal in diameter to the fireball (500 feet or more) will be vaporized. People up to 2 miles from ground zero will likely not survive. But even the largest nuclear weapon won’t blow up an area the size of Los Angeles, let alone a state or a country. Unlike the Cold War days when thousands of Soviet nuclear warheads were aimed at America, an attack today would probably be a limited-size bomb from a single terrorist strike. Total destruction of people and property in an area 1 to 3 miles from ground zero would be expected. Fires started by thermal pulse would extend the destruction a few more miles. Fallout could kill tens of thousands more. It is unlikely that a nuclear bomb detonated in a densely populated area like New York City would kill more than a few million people.
What are the hazards of a nuclear device?
The extent, nature, and arrival time of such hazards are difficult to predict. The geographical dispersion of hazard effects are be defined by the following:
- Size of the device. A more powerful bomb will produce more far-reaching effects.
- How far above the ground the device was detonated. This will determine the extent of blast effects.
- Nature of the surface beneath the explosion. Some materials are more likely to become radioactive and airborne than others. Flat areas are more susceptible to blast effects.
- Existing meteorological conditions. Wind speed and direction will affect arrival time of fallout; precipitation may wash fallout from the atmosphere.
What is radioactive fallout?
The tremendous heat produced from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft of air that forms the familiar mushroom cloud. When a blast occurs near the earth’s surface, millions of vaporized dirt particles also are drawn into the cloud. As the heat diminishes, radioactive materials that have vaporized condense on the particles and fall back to Earth. The phenomenon is called radioactive fallout. This fallout material decays over a long period of time, and is the main source of residual nuclear radiation.
Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for hundreds of miles if the right conditions exist. Effects from even a small portable device exploded at ground level can be potentially deadly.
Nuclear radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by normal senses; it can only be detected by radiation monitoring devices. This makes radiological emergencies different from other types of emergencies, such as floods or hurricanes. Monitoring can project the fallout arrival times, which would be announced through official warning channels. However, any increase in surface build-up of gritty dust and dirt should be a warning for taking protective measures.
What is an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP)?
In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s atmosphere can create an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). An EMP is a high-density electrical field that acts like a stroke of lightning but is stronger, faster, and shorter. An EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected to power sources or antennas. This includes communication systems, computers, electrical appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected. Battery-powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected. Although an EMP is unlikely to directly harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers or other implanted electronic devices.
How would I protect myself from a nuclear blast?
The three factors for protecting oneself from radiation and fallout are distance, shielding, and time.
- Distance. The greater the distance between you and the fallout particles, the better. An underground area such as a basement offers more protection than the first floor of a building. A floor near the middle of a high-rise may be better, if it is not adjacent to any surface on which radioactive particles could accumulate.
- Shielding. The heavier and denser the materials – thick walls, concrete, bricks, earth – between you and the fallout particles, the better.
- Time. Fallout radiation loses its intensity fairly rapidly. In time, you will be able to leave the fallout shelter. Radioactive fallout poses the greatest threat to people during the first two weeks, by which time it has declined to about 1 percent of its initial radiation level.
Remember that any protection, however temporary, is better than none at all, and the more shielding, distance, and time you can take advantage of, the better.
Where are the potential targets for nuclear attacks?
In general, potential military targets include:
- Strategic missile sites and military bases.
- Centers of government such as Washington, DC, and state capitals.
- Important transportation and communication centers.
- Manufacturing, industrial, technology, and financial centers.
- Petroleum refineries, electrical power plants, and chemical plants.
- Major ports and airfields.
Potential terrorist targets include:
- Large cities such as New York, Boston, Washington, Atlanta, Los Angeles, etc.
- Symbolic American cities such as Philadelphia, or Hollywood.
- Heartland cities such as St. Louis, Memphis, Chicago.
- Cities or locations on the West Coast (taking advantage of maximum casualties created through east-traveling fallout).
- Major sporting events such as the Super Bowl.
How can I prepare for a nuclear attack?
To prepare for a nuclear blast, you should do the following:
Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have been designated as fallout shelters. If none have been designated, make your own list of potential shelters near your home, workplace, and school. These places would include basements or the windowless center area of middle floors in high-rise buildings, as well as subways and tunnels.
If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to leave.
During periods of increased threat, increase your disaster supplies to be adequate for up to two weeks.
Taking shelter during a nuclear blast is absolutely necessary. There are three kinds of shelters – blast, fallout, and underground. The following describes the three kinds of shelters:
Blast shelters are specifically constructed to offer some protection against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat, and fire. Even a blast shelter cannot withstand a direct hit from a nuclear explosion.
Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed in order to protect against fallout. They can be any protected space, provided that the walls and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by fallout particles.
Underground bomb shelters give you the best protection. Not only are they placed well below ground, providing protection from an initial blast, but they are also situated deep enough (36 inches or more) to provide protection from radioactive fallout.
What do I do during a nuclear blast?
If an attack warning is issued:
- Take cover as quickly as you can, below ground if possible, and stay there until instructed to do otherwise.
- Listen for official information and follow instructions.
If you are caught outside and unable to get inside immediately:
- Do not look at the flash or fireball – it can blind you.
- Take cover behind anything that might offer protection.
- Lie flat on the ground and cover your head. If the explosion is some distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit.
- Take shelter as soon as you can, even if you are many miles from ground zero where the attack occurred – radioactive fallout can be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles. Remember the three protective factors: Distance, shielding, and time.
What do I do after a nuclear blast?
Decay rates of radioactive fallout are the same for any size nuclear device. However, the amount of fallout will vary based on the size of the device and its proximity to the ground. Therefore, it might be necessary for those in the areas with highest radiation levels to shelter for up to a month. The heaviest fallout would be limited to the area at or downwind from the explosion, and 80 percent of the fallout would occur during the first 24 hours. People in most of the areas that would be affected could be allowed to come out of shelter within a few days and, if necessary, evacuate to unaffected areas.
Remember the following when returning home:
- Keep listening to the radio and television for news about what to do, where to go, and places to avoid.
- Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away from areas marked “radiation hazard” or “HAZMAT.” Remember that radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by human senses.